It's Been Done
According to Jewish tradition, infertility is grounds for permitting divorce and even, according to some authorities, grounds for requiring divorce. (I think that last is going a little too far.)
Addendum: John J. Reilly takes this more seriously than the originators did:
The interesting thing about this initiative is that we are in the last few years when it will immediately be perceived as a joke. There are below-replacement-level birthrate societies in Europe and East Asia, and even some depopulating states in the United States, that really should be considering pro-natalist schemes at least this radical, if not this stupid. It's a good bet that they soon will.